1963

The Secret History of the United States

1963


"Bull" Connor employed both snarling police attack dogs and high-powered fire hoses to drive back black demonstrators who sought to march into downtown Birmingham.
No Easy Walk - David J. Garrow -The Eyes on the Prize Civil Rights Reader p.136
Police dogs in Birmingham, 1963 Seattle Times

My friends, I must say to you that we have not made a single gain in civil rights without determined legal and nonviolent pressure. History is the long and tragic story of the fact that privileged groups seldom give up their privileges voluntarily.
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Letter from Birmingham City Jail April 16, 1963.

If an American, because his skin is dark, cannot eat lunch in a restaurant open to the public; if he cannot send his children to the best public schools available; if he cannot vote for the public officials who represent him; if, in short, he cannot enjoy the full and free life which all of us want, then who among us would be content to have the color of his skin changed and stand in his place?
President John F. Kennedy's Nationally Televised Speech June 11, 1963
Within hours of Kennedy's important address, Mississippi NAACP leader Medgar Evers was shot from ambush and killed outside his home in Jackson.

African American Holocaust

more on civil rights1964


assassination Ngo Dinh Diem, S. Vietnam

[General Duong Van]Minh joined with two other senior South Vietnamese Army officers in the coup, which was carried out with the prior knowledge and acquiescence of the American Embassy and the White House. The job of assassinating Diem and Ngu fell to Minh's personal bodyguard, who shot both men as they were supposedly being driven to safety.
The Price of Power - Seymour M. Hersh p.425

more on Vietnam1964


assasination J.F.K.

The JFK Mock Trial

Lyndon Johnson told his former aid Lea Janos, as recounted in a July 1973 Atlantic article, "We had been operating a damned Murder, Inc. in the Carribean." Janos elaborated, "A year or so before Kennedy's death a CIA-backed assasination team had been picked up in Havana. Johnson speculated that Dallas had been a retaliation for this thwarted attempt, although he couldn't prove it."
The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence - Victor Marchetti and John D. Marks p.260

During the days and weeks before the Kennedy killing, Ruby was calling and being called by the top aides to Marcello, Florida mobster Santos Trafficante, and Hoffa - all of whom were known to have discussed plans with their associates to murder either John or Robert Kennedy.
Dark Victory - Dan E. Moldea p.234

For instance, on November 23 [1963], according to Bureau documents, the FBI briefed a "Mr. George Bush of the Central Intelligence" on matters relating to the assassination [Bush was in Dallas at the time of the assassination].
p.201 Wedge - Mark Riebling

there is an article Kennedy: The George Bush Connection by Mark Turner at WWW Virtual Library Sumeria

Nor did the Bureau tell the Agency about allegations that Santos Trafficante, the key figure in CIA's pre-Cubela assassination attempts, was also really working for Castro - and that the president's life might be in danger. This information came to the FBI from Jose Alleman, an anti-Castro exile in Miami.
...Trafficante had offered to get him a loan from Jimmy Hoffa's International Brotherhood of Teamsters, and while they were on that subject, Trafficante had mentioned, in passing, that because of the Kennedy administration's harrassment of certain individuals, JFK was finished. According to Aleman, Trafficante had said simply, "He is going to be hit."
Wedge - Mark Riebling p.170

there's an article on Jim Garrison's investigation from Playboy magazine online at Real History Archives

more on Kennedy1968


[Guatemala] In 1963, there was concern in Washington that there might be another election; and Kennedy therefore supported a military coup. By the late 1960s, the terrorism that we were supporting had aroused resistance, and so we sent Green Berets to lead a counterinsurgency campaign which left many thousands dead, maybe 8,000 to 10,000 people died. It was reported by the vice president of Guatemala that American planes based in Panama carried out napalm raids in Guatemala at that time.
The Chomsky Reader - Noam Chomsky p.327

there's an article Human Rights in Guatemala at WWW Virtual Library Sumeria

more on Guatemala1989

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