The Secret History of the United States


Meanwhile, in August 1964, North Vietnamese patrol boats attacked an American destroyer, the USS Maddox, in the Tonkin Gulf. The Maddox was helping ARVN conduct sabotage missions in the north, but LBJ kept that from the public. Instead, the president declared that our ship had been attacked in international waters, and that he was retaliating by ordering air strikes on several installations in North Vietnam.
The Movement and the Sixties - Terry H. Anderson p. 122
30-Year Anniversary: Tonkin Gulf Lie Launched Vietnam War from Media Beat

more on Vietnam1965

Rethinking Camelot Noam Chomsky

Collusion on tobacco in '64 hinted: Report says companies joined in strategies to protect products
By Anthony Flint, Globe Staff, 10/01/96
In what one congressman says is the clearest evidence yet of collusion in the tobacco industry, a confidential 1964 report shows that top tobacco company executives - with full knowledge of the power of nicotine in their products - huddled extensively to establish a uniform strategy to protect against lawsuits, fend off regulation and keep Americans smoking...
Prepared by two British researchers who were sent to assess and summarize the American smoking controversy for British tobacco firms, the report quotes top US tobacco executives speaking candidly on sensitive topics, including a comment by one that ``people smoked because of the nicotine.''
from Boston Globe Online

One way to trace the formation of the computer network is to begin in 1964, when a cold war think tank called the Rand Corporation was asked to come up with a way for the United States to maintain defense communications in the event of a nuclear war...Like a grassroots counterculture, the defense industry's ARPANET was created by the mid-seventies to allow different people in seperate locations to communicate with each other and even operate defense systems after a devastating nuclear attack.
p.236 Media Virus - Douglas Rushkoff

coup in Brazil

On March 31, 1964 troop movements against President Joao Goulart began in the state of Minas Gerais. By the next day he had been overthrown. While coups happened with some frequency in Brazil, the armed forces usually returned control of the government to civilians shortly after overthrowing an unpopular president ; however, after the coup of 1964 the armed forces remained in power for over tw enty years.
from Reasons for the 1964 Coup by Tyler Bray

The decision was made, apparently, by President Johnson himself, that an all-out effort must be made not only to prevent a counter-coup and insurgency in the short run in Brazil, but also to build up their security forces as fast and effectively as possible for the long run.
Inside the Company : CIA Diary - Philip Agee

Raborn had been CIA director for less than a week when President Johnson elected to dispatch twenty-five thousand Marines to the Dominican Republic to avert a communist takeover. and not long afterward Johnson followed up by sending in the FBI.
Wedge - Mark Riebling p.227

more on Dominican Republic1965

...in the 1964 election the CIA spent twice as much per Chilean voter to block Allende as the total spent per voter by both parties in the U.S. elections of the same year.
Deterring Democracy - Noam Chomsky p.395

Secrets, Lies, and Democracy - Chile Noam Chomsky

At least $20 million in support of the Frei candidacy - about $8 per voter - was funneled into Chile by the United States in 1963 and 1964, much of it through the Agency for International Development (AID).
The Price of Power - Seymour M. Hersh p.260

more on Chile1970

Phoenix program begun

Under such circumstances, it is hardly surprising that when three young activists - James Chaney, Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman - disappeared in Neshoba County, Mississippi on June 21, 1964, the FBI had active "subversive" files open on one of the two whites, Schwerner, as well as Chaney, a 21-year-old black man.
...As a result, on October 27, 1967, seven of the 19 remaining murderers [of the 3] (including klan leader Bowers and Deputy Price) were convicted only of conspiring to deprive their victims of their civil rights and sentenced to serve three-to-ten years in federal prison. Charges against the other twelve were dropped or they were acquitted altogether. As U.S. District Judge Harold Cox put it at the time of sentencing: "They killed one nigger, one Jew, and a white man. I gave them what I thought they deserved."
The COINTELPRO Papers - Ward Churchill & Jim Vander Wall p.169

Eight months later President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. After blacks had resided for three centuries in America, Congress finally recognized that they were citizens protected by the Constitution.
The Movement and the Sixties - Terry H. Anderson p.76

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 forbade discrimination based on race in public accommodations and employment. It also abolished literacy tests used in registering voters.
20th Century America - Millennium 2000 p.83
Civil Rights Act of 1964

Apparently without informing the White House, the FBI initiated electronic surveillance at the Democratic National Convention in August.[1964]...Dr. King was tapped.
J. Edgar Hoover : The Man and the Secrets - Curt Gentry

On November 21...the FBI mailed an anonymous letter and a tape of the King hotel-room bugs to King and his wife, Coretta. William Sullivan said in an interview that he had, on orders from Hoover, arranged to have a tape mailed to Mrs. King. He said he received the order from Hoover's assistant, Alan H. Belmont
The American Police State - David Wise p.306

Sullivan letter to M.L.K.

there's an article on the FBI investigation of MLK and others Federal Bureau of Intimidation by Howard Zinn at CovertAction Quarterly

more on civil rights1965

...FBI documents not previously available revealed an intimate and furtive relationship between Ford and the FBI. The documents show Ford fed top-secret information to the FBI while he was a member of the Warren Commission.
p.43 Plausible Denial - Mark Lane

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